Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines
Nationally consistent standards and guidelines for the welfare of livestock are being developed, cooperatively by government and livestock industries, under the Australian Animal Welfare Strategy (AAWS). The welfare standards and guidelines are based on the revision of the current Model Codes of Practice for the Welfare of Animals.
The welfare standards and guidelines for livestock aim to streamline livestock welfare legislation in Australia, ensuring that it is both practical for industry and results in improved welfare outcomes.
Australian producers have always been aware of their responsibilities for livestock welfare, however, increasing awareness among consumers is placing significant pressure on our livestock industries to improve animal welfare. The development of welfare standards and guidelines underpins access to overseas markets and reinforces Australia's international leadership in livestock welfare. Without such change Australia risks losing consumer confidence and significant national and international markets.
Australian Animal Welfare Strategy
The AAWS is for the entire Australian community, including animal owners, the veterinary profession, livestock producers, processors, transporters, animal welfare bodies, researchers, consumers and government agencies. The goals, objectives and activities outlined in the strategy are based on science, national and international benchmarks, and social and economic considerations.
The vision of the strategy is that: The welfare of all animals in Australia is promoted and protected by the development and adoption of sound animal welfare standards and practices.
Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines
Standards will be the legal requirements for livestock welfare and will use the word 'must'. The standards will provide the basis for developing and implementing consistent legislation and enforcement across Australia.
The main decision-making principles used for developing the Standards are to ensure that standards are:
- desirable for livestock welfare
- feasible for industry and government to implement
- important for the livestock-welfare regulatory framework
- achievable ie. meet the intended outcome for livestock welfare.
The 'Standards' (capital 'S') refers to the whole Standards and Guidelines document by name, while the individual "standards" (small 's') detail the requirements of livestock management (practices and tasks) within each Standards document.
Guidelines are recommended practices to achieve desirable livestock welfare outcomes. Guidelines will use the word 'should' and are designed to complement the standards. Non-compliance with one or more guidelines will not constitute an offence under law.
The Standards Development Process
The development process for the standards and guidelines is transparent and inclusive. Relevant scientific literature, current practice and community expectations are utilised to support an evidence-based approach.
The process involves representatives from livestock industry sectors, animal welfare and research organisations, relevant state and territory government agencies, the Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry and other stakeholders.
The process includes a public consultation stage which provides an opportunity for all members of the public to comment on the draft standards and guidelines before they are finalised. Then, only after significant consultation and liaison, will the standards and guidelines progress for endorsement by Primary Industries Ministerial Council and implementation by the states and territories.
Standards and Guidelines developed or in progress
The first Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines that have been developed are the Land Transport of Livestock. The new Land Transport Standards combine the seven previous Model Codes of Practice and provisions on livestock transport. A copy of the Land Transport Standards can be access from the Australian Animal Welfare Standards website.
Other Standards and Guidelines currently under development include:
- Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Cattle
- Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Sheep
With the support of the Victorian pork industry, Victoria will adopt the current Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs, with some minor amendments to become the Victorian Standards and Guidelines for the Welfare of Pigs 2011.
Implementation of the Standards
Under Australia's constitutional arrangements, state and territory governments are responsible for animal welfare arrangements within their jurisdictions. Once the new Standards are endorsed, the next step is for State jurisdictions to integrate them into legislation.
Livestock Management Act 2010
The new Victorian Livestock Management Act 2010 provides the legislative framework for integrating agreed livestock management Standards and ensuring compliance. The Livestock Management Act will operate together with the existing Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1986 and the Livestock Disease Control Act 1994, which focus more on the extremes of cruelty and livestock diseases. Livestock management by definition includes aspects of animal health, animal welfare, biosecurity and traceability.
The Standards will be adopted (prescribed) into regulations under the Livestock Management Act 2010. Offences, penalties and infringements for failure to comply with specific standards will apply.
For information about the Pig Welfare Standards and Land Transport Standards please refer to the Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources (DEDJTR) for:
For further information regarding the Livestock Management Act, refer to the Information Note: Livestock Management Act
Further information on the Australian Animal Welfare Strategy and the Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines is available from the Australian Animal Welfare Standards website.
Authored by : Dr David Champness, Principal Veterinary Officer, Biosecurity Victoria