Information on 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products
What is 1080?
Sodium fluoroacetate or '1080' (pronounced 'ten-eighty') is a colourless, odourless and tasteless compound that was initially synthesised in Belgium in 1896. 1080 occurs naturally in plants in a number of countries including Australia. 1080 is a poison used in the control of vertebrate pests in Victoria, such as rabbits, foxes, wild dogs and feral pigs.
1080 is a Schedule 7 poison and can only be purchased and used by authorised persons. All 1080 use must comply with the product label and the Directions for the Use of 1080 Pest Animal Bait Products in Victoria. All bait products are manufactured to specifications. These specifications include bait size, type and concentration of the 1080 applied, depending on the target species. 1080 pest animal bait products come in three forms; perishable ('fresh') and shelf-stable baits and capsules for use in Canid Pest Ejectors.
Capsules for use in Canid Pest Ejectors
Capsules for use in Canid Pest Ejectors contain either 3 or 6 mg of 1080 to target foxes and wild dogs respectively and are commercially available through Agsafe 1080-accredited chemical retailers. Capsules for use in Canid Pest Ejectors are registered with the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA).
Ejector capsules containing 1080 are sealed and protected ensuring the 1080 remains viable for extended periods in the field. Canid Pest Ejectors are securely pinned to the ground reducing the likelihood of them being moved or cached by foxes, wild dogs or birds.
The device is only activated by a direct pull on the lure head that activates the spring loaded plunger to propel the contents of the capsule directly into the mouth of the wild dog or fox.
Shelf-stable 1080 pest animal bait products are pest animal baits containing 1080 that have a long shelf life and are commercially manufactured and sold through Agsafe 1080-accredited chemical retailers. Shelf-stable 1080 pest animal bait products are formulated and registered with the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) to target a specific pest animal.
Shelf-stable 1080 pest animal bait products registered for use in Victoria are dried meat-based baits to target foxes and wild dogs, dry oat baits for rabbits and commercially manufactured feral pig bait.
The maximum period of time between bait purchase, the date of manufacture and the destruction or disposal of baits that are un-used or un-taken, is two months from date of purchase.
Perishable or 'fresh' 1080 pest animal bait products are baits containing 1080 that have a short shelf life. They are manufactured by licensed 1080 perishable bait manufacturers, and can be supplied by licensed manufacturers, Commercial Operator Licence (with vermin destroyers endorsement) holders and Agsafe accredited chemical retailers . Perishable 1080 pest animal bait products can only be made from fresh meat (boneless red meat to target wild dogs), liver (for wild dogs and foxes) or carrots (for rabbits). Perishable 1080 pest animal bait products are manufactured by injecting or applying 1080 aqueous solution to carrot, liver or boneless red meat, and supplied under permit from the APVMA. These baits have a short shelf life and must be laid within three days of the date of manufacture.
What is PAPP?
PAPP (4-aminopropiophenone) is a new active ingredient used in pest animal bait products that has been registered and approved for the control of foxes and wild dogs. PAPP will be used in a similar way to 1080 baits already registered for fox and wild dog control in Victoria.
Like 1080, PAPP is a Schedule 7 poison and can only be purchased and used by authorised persons. All PAPP use must comply with the product label.
What are 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products used for?
1080 products are registered for the control of rabbits, foxes, wild dogs and feral pigs in Victoria. PAPP products are registered for the control of foxes and wild dogs. 1080 and PAPP are best used as part of an integrated approach to control these species.
Using 1080 or PAPP to manage pest animals is a means of protecting Victoria's biodiversity and reducing impacts on farms and catchment health.
Victoria's regulatory framework for 1080 and PAPP, provides a range of safeguards that help minimise harm to non-target species and protect the continued availability of these management tools for vertebrate pest control.
1080 and PAPP users must display warning signs at all entry points to land on which pest animal bait products have been laid and all adjoining neighbours must be notified in writing prior to the commencement of the baiting program.
Detailed descriptions of the safeguards that apply to the supply and use of 1080 pest animal bait products can be found in the Directions for the Use of 1080 Pest Animal Bait Products in Victoria.
Who is authorised to purchase and use 1080 and PAPP bait products in Victoria?
1080 and PAPP baits may only be supplied to, or used by 'authorised persons', being:
- a person holding a valid Agricultural Chemical Users Permit (ACUP) (with a 1080 and PAPP endorsement on the permit) issued under the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Control of Use Act) 1992; or
- a person, entity or staff member operating under a valid Commercial Operator Licence (COL) with a vermin destroyer endorsement issued under the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Control of Use) Act 1992, who has successfully completed the Course in Minimising Risks in the Use of 1080 Pest Animal Bait Products for Vertebrate Pest Control; or
- a person holding a valid Pest Control Licence (PCL) issued under the Public Health and Wellbeing Act 2008, with an authorisation to use pesticides formulated for the control of pest animals to protect a building used for commercial purposes, a domestic premises, or privately owned land adjacent to domestic premises; and has completed the Course in Minimising Risks in the Use of 1080 Pest Animal Bait Products for Vertebrate Pest Control; or
- a person who holds a valid Pilot (Chemical Rating) Licence, issued under the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Control of Use) Act 1992 and who has successfully completed the Course in Minimising Risks in the Use of 1080 Pest Animal Bait Products for Vertebrate Pest Control.
How do I become authorised to use 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products?
To become authorised you need to complete specific training:
- Be the holder of either:
- an Agricultural Chemical Use Permit (ACUP)
- A DEDJTR administered Commercial Operator License with a vermin destroyer endorsement (COL)
- a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Pest Control Licence authorising the use of pesticides formulated for the control of pest animals (PCL)
- a Pilot (Chemical rating) Licence
- Successfully complete the Course in Minimising the Risks in the Use of 1080 Pest Animal Bait Products for Vertebrate Pest Control (also known as '1080 User Training').
NOTE: For ACUP holders to use 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products, they need to apply for a 1080 and PAPP endorsement on the permit through the Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources.
Further information is available on
- Obtaining an Agricultural Chemical Users Permit (ACUP)
- To apply for an Commercial Operator Licence (COL) go here
- To apply for a Pest Control Licence (PCL) go here
- Agricultural Aircraft Operator Licence and Pilot (Chemical Rating) Licence
What documents do I need to show to buy and use 1080 and PAPP bait products?
At the point of sale, you will need to provide proof of authorisation, using one of the following options:
- an Agricultural Chemical Use Permit (ACUP) with a 1080 and PAPP endorsement;
- a Commercial Operator Licence (COL) with a vermin destroyer's endorsement and provide proof of having successfully completed the 1080 user training;
- a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Pest Control Licence (PCL) authorising the use of pesticides formulated for the control of pest animals and provide proof of having completed the 1080 user training; or
- a Pilot (Chemical Rating) Licence and provide proof of having completed the 1080 user training.
All 1080 pest animal bait products must be used in accordance with the Directions for the Use of 1080 Pest Animal Bait Products in Victoria.
1080 User Training Course
To be authorised to purchase and use 1080 and PAPP bait products you need to successfully complete the Course in Minimising Risks in the Use of 1080 Pest Animal Bait Products for Vertebrate Pest Control ('1080 User Training').
This course trains participants in the safe, legal and effective use of 1080 pest animal bait products for vertebrate pest control in Victoria. Due to the similarities between 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products, the course provides an appropriate minimum competency standard to use PAPP in Victoria.
Registered Training Organisations
There are a number of Victorian Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) that provide the 1080 User Training for a fee. A list of 1080 User Training providers can be found on the Australian Government's training website (link below).
To search for a registered trainer, follow the link below and scroll to the bottom of the page to the Quick Search section. Enter the training code 22275vic in the box marked 'Nationally recognised training' and click on the Search button.
In the Summary section of the results, click on the link beside Delivery titled 'Find RTOs approved to deliver this course'.
Supply of 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products
There is a commercial network of authorised retailers and manufacturers who supply 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products in Victoria.
A pilot program has recently commenced between Victoria and NSW to increase access to 1080 bait products for wild dog and fox control for local communities in eastern Victoria. See Interstate 1080 Pest Animal Bait Supply.
Where can I purchase 1080 and PAPP bait products in Victoria?
1080 bait products are available from retailers who have Agsafe 1080 premises accreditation.
A list of Agsafe 1080 accredited retailers can be found on the Agsafe website. Alternatively, you can contact Agsafe on (02) 6230 4799. Shelf-stable and perishable baits can be ordered through Agsafe 1080 accredited retailers.
PAPP bait products may also be available from accredited retailers.
Perishable 1080 bait products can be purchased from authorised perishable bait manufacturers, who are licensed by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), enabling them to prepare perishable baits made with 1080 aqueous solution and supplied in accordance with an APVMA permit.
A list of authorised perishable 1080 bait manufacturers can be found on the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)'s website.
Authorised 1080 bait users can purchase perishable 1080 bait products directly from the licensed 1080 bait manufacturer or through your local Agsafe 1080 accredited retailer. Bait users may need to discuss their order with the manufacturer or retailer first to be sure they can obtain the baits they need.
Training for retailers and manufacturers
Training requirements for retailers of APVMA registered and permitted 1080 bait products
Retailers must have Agsafe 1080 premises accreditation and have completed Agsafe personnel 1080 training. Agsafe conducts an online course Supply of Perishable 1080 Bait Products (using 1080 Aqueous Solution). This training can be undertaken at any time. For further information contact Agsafe on (02) 6230 4799.
Training requirements for retail manufacturers and suppliers of 1080 perishable bait using aqueous solution
Manufacturers and suppliers need to hold a 1080 poison manufacture and supply licence. (Details about applying for this licence can be found on the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)'s website.) They also need to complete the Agsafe accreditation – Supply of Perishable 1080 Bait Products (using 1080 Aqueous Solution).
Training requirements for wholesale manufacturers and suppliers of 1080 perishable bait using aqueous solution
Persons wishing to manufacture and sell or supply by wholesale, perishable 1080 pest animal bait products will require a licence from the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).
Further information can be found by reading Guidance for manufacturers and suppliers of 1080 pest animal baits on the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)'s website.
Requirements for Commercial Operator Licence holders to supply perishable 1080 pest animal baits
Commercial Operator Licence (COL) holders with a vermin destroyer endorsement are eligible to apply for a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) licence to manufacture and supply perishable 1080 pest animal bait products.
To be eligible to apply for the licence COL holders must have completed 1080 Perishable Bait Manufacturer training and Agsafe personnel 1080 training, (Agsafe Online course: Supply of Perishable 1080 Bait Products (using 1080 Aqueous Solution) External link). Once pre-requisite studies have been completed, eligible COL holders can apply to the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) for a licence to manufacture and supply to end users perishable 1080 bait products.
See also: FAQ: Commercial Operator Licence holders
Persons using 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products must make within 48 hours of use, and keep for a period of two years after the date of use, an accurate written record of the use in accordance with the Agricultural Chemicals (Control of Use) Regulations 2007.
All users must comply with the product label and users of 1080 pest animal bait products must follow and comply with the Directions for the Use of 1080 Pest Animal Bait Products in Victoria.
The user of 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products is responsible for and may be liable for any damage that occurs if they fail to comply with the directions for use and legislative requirements.
Risk assessment for vertebrate pest control using 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products
1080 and PAPP pest animal bait risk assessment
The bait user is responsible for assessing and managing the risks associated with the use of 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products. Completing a 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait risk assessment will help you to determine if 1080 or PAPP baiting is an appropriate control option and, if so, how many baits or capsules will be needed, what the risks are and how these risks will be managed.
A 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait risk assessment provides the 1080 and PAPP user with a checklist of actions that need to be undertaken prior to, during and after baiting. It covers the identification of hazards (i.e. toxicity to target and non-target species) and the potential for non-target species to be exposed to bait. A 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait risk assessment will enable 1080 and PAPP bait users to identify and minimise the risks associated with the use of 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products.
Completing a 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait risk assessment
A suggested process for completing a 1080 and PAPP risk assessment has been provided below:
- Monitor the pest species that you are planning on managing, identifying where they are living, travelling, foraging and/or feeding and estimating their numbers on the property where baits may be laid. Conduct similar monitoring for non-target animals on the property where baits may be laid to determine non-target risks.
- Consider which of the pest animal management techniques available will be most effective for your situation.
- Determine if a 1080 or PAPP pest animal bait program is the most appropriate course of action. If it is, download the appropriate risk assessment for the pest animal species that you are trying to manage:
- Prior to purchasing a 1080 or PAPP bait product, undertake a 1080 and PAPP risk assessment and speak with your neighbours about the pest animal problem and potential management solutions, including baiting. Discuss with them the possibility of undertaking coordinated baiting as this approach gives a greater level of pest animal control over a larger area of land.
- Identify where the most appropriate location(s) for bait placement are on your property.
A range of factors need to be considered when undertaking a baiting program. These include:
The major considerations are accidental contamination of water or feed-stuffs.
Environmental impacts can be avoided through responsible placement of baits, secure storage of bait, use of appropriate bait quantities and effective bait and carcass recovery and disposal.
Always dispose of carcasses and unused and untaken bait products away from natural features like waterways, as specified on the product label. If incinerating, ensure that heat totally destroys the 1080 or PAPP poison and that you adhere to local and state restrictions.
Untaken, unused or damaged,1080 capsules and empty packaging must be disposed of at an approved waste management facility or buried with any 1080 contaminated rinsate and empty packaging to a depth of at least 100 centimetres below the surface. The disposal pit must be specifically marked and set up for this purpose clear of waterways, vegetation and tree roots compliant with State regulations.
1080 capsules for use in Canid Pest Ejectors must not be incinerated.
1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products are not species-specific and can be lethal to some non-target species. Risks to non-target species should be identified in the initial planning phase of the program and practices should be adapted accordingly.
For example, when using 1080 or PAPP pest animal bait products, be aware that:
- domestic dogs are susceptible to primary poisoning from ingesting 1080 or PAPP pest animal bait products and secondary poisoning from ingesting contaminated carcasses. Every attempt must be made to pick up and dispose of carcasses.
- steps need to be taken (for example muzzling or restraining) to ensure that domestic dogs and other domestic animals do not gain access to 1080 or PAPP pest animal bait products or poisoned animals.
- some birds may be susceptible to primary or secondary poisoning. Burying baits, carcass and bait disposal, and dyeing of baits help to reduce these risks.
When using 1080 or PAPP shelf-stable or 1080 perishable bait products specifically for fox or wild dog control, baits must be buried and therefore herbivores have a reduced risk of poisoning as they are unlikely to be attracted to or consume the baits. Lure heads upon canid pest ejectors are also designed to not attract herbivores.
Methods to minimise bait uptake by non-target species
These methods include:
- varying bait placement, arrangement and timing to suit feeding behaviour of target species and to avoid non-target species.
- using free-feeding to introduce pest species to bait at a time when non-target species are not actively feeding.
- burying free-feed baits in a mound of fine sand or soil, spread over a diameter of one metre. The sand should be checked for tracks regularly to ensure it is the target species that is taking the baits.
- using spotlight monitoring to determine pest animal population, abundance and distribution.
- selecting bait types that are not usually taken by non-target species.
- using pulse-baiting or staggering the baits to reduce the opportunity for bait caching by an individual animal, particularly predators such as foxes.
- trapping mammals to monitor or identify the presence of non-target species.
- observing tracks, scats and other signs of non-targets in baiting area.
- the use of bait stations to exclude or limit non-target species access to poisoned bait.
Reducing potential harm to non-target species
To reduce the potential harm to non-target wildlife, bait users must comply with free feeding directions on the product label (if applicable).
Bait placement must be such that non-target access is minimised. Baits must not be laid at times when, or in locations where, birds or other non-target species are likely to be harmed by them. Correct bait placement must be ensured, including selecting the minimum effective baiting rate and avoiding baiting during the main breeding seasons of non-target species.
Steps must be taken to ensure that domestic dogs do not gain access to 1080 or PAPP pest animal baits or poisoned carcasses. This can include restraining or muzzling domestic dogs.
A person must not allow domestic stock that they own or control to access any land on which bait has been placed, until the baiting has been completed, and all efforts have been made to collect and destroy untaken bait. This applies to all trail baiting and aerial or ground-broadcast baiting programs.
Incident reporting: non-target animals
If bait users are concerned for any companion animals, livestock or wildlife suspected of being poisoned with 1080 or PAPP they should refer them for immediate veterinary assistance. While there is no antidote to 1080, there is a potential antidote available for PAPP use. However, constraints in availability may limit its effectiveness and users should not rely on an antidote as a method to reduce harm to non-target animals.
All incidents of suspected 1080 or PAPP poisoning of non-target animals, including domestic dogs, must be reported to the DEDJTR Customer Service Centre on 136 186.
Alternative control methods
Risk to non-target species from poisoning can be minimised by using alternative control methods such as those found on DEDJTR's invasive animal management pages.
For further information:
Contact your local Landcare or friends group for further assistance and advice.
Contact your local DEDJTR Biosecurity Officer – Invasive Animals for advice on local programs.
Frequently Asked Questions
Please refer to the below list of frequently asked questions for further information regarding Victoria's 1080 and PAPP bait system. As you read through these documents you may come across the following terms or acronyms.
An authorised bait user: An authorised bait user is a person who holds a valid Agricultural Chemical User Permit (ACUP) with 1080 and PAPP endorsement or Commercial Operator Licence (COL) with vermin destroyer endorsement or Pest Control Licence (PCL) authorising the use of pesticides formulated for the control of pest animals.
Agricultural Chemical User Permit
Commercial Operator Licence
Department of Health and Human Services
Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources
Drugs Poisons and Controlled Substances Act 1981
Drugs, Poisons and Controlled Substance Regulations (2006)
Pest Control Licence
Safety Data Sheet
Below is a list of documents that you may need to download to purchase and/or use 1080 bait products.
- Directions for Use of 1080 Pest Animal Bait Products in Victoria - PDF version / Accessible version
- Risk Assessment for Fox, Wild Dog and Feral Pig Control in Victoria - Word version
- Risk Assessment for Rabbit Control in Victoria - Word version
- Neighbour Notification - Template - Word version
- Record of Neighbour Notification - Template - Word version
- Agent 1080 Bait Purchase Record - Word version
- Community Baiting Program Notification and Acknowledgement form - Word version
- Example 1080 Warning Sign - Word version
Where can I get further information?
Further information is available from the DEDJTR Customer Service Centre on 136 186.
Find out more about pest animals management in Victoria.