Further information on 1080 and PAPP
1080 (sodium fluoroacetate) and PAPP (4-aminopropiophenone) are the active constituents in pest animal bait products that can be used to control certain vertebrate pest animals, like foxes and wild dogs in Victoria.
This page contains details on :
- Types of 1080 and PAPP products
- Record keeping for bait use
- Risk assessment for bait use
- Risk management
- Incident reporting
- Further information and downloadable documents
Types of 1080 and PAPP products
Pest animal bait products containing 1080 are registered for the control of rabbits, foxes, wild dogs and feral pigs in Victoria. 1080 pest animal bait products come in three forms; perishable ('fresh'), shelf-stable and capsules for use in Canid Pest Ejectors.
PAPP products are available as shelf-stable only and are registered for the control of foxes and wild dogs.
1080 and PAPP are classified as Schedule 7 Poisons (Dangerous Poisons) and are restricted chemical products under Commonwealth legislation. Therefore, the manufacture, sale and use of products containing 1080 and PAPP is regulated.
Shelf-stable 1080 pest animal bait products have a long shelf life and are commercially manufactured and sold through Agsafe 1080-accredited chemical retailers. Shelf-stable 1080 pest animal bait products are formulated to target a specific pest animal and are registered with the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA).
Shelf-stable 1080 pest animal bait products are dried meat-based baits that target foxes and wild dogs, dry oat baits for rabbits and commercially manufactured feral pig bait.
The maximum period of time between bait purchase, the date of manufacture and the destruction or disposal of baits that are un-used or un-taken, is two months from date of purchase.
Perishable or 'fresh' 1080 pest animal bait products have a short shelf life. They are manufactured by licensed 1080 perishable bait manufacturers, and can be supplied by licensed manufacturers and Agsafe accredited chemical retailers .
Perishable 1080 pest animal bait products can only be made from fresh meat (boneless red meat to target wild dogs), liver (for wild dogs and foxes) or carrots (for rabbits). Perishable 1080 pest animal bait products are manufactured by injecting or applying 1080 aqueous solution to carrot, liver or boneless red meat, and supplied under permit from the APVMA. These baits have a short shelf life and must be laid within three days of the date of manufacture.
Capsules for use in Canid Pest Ejectors
Capsules for use in Canid Pest Ejectors contain either 3 or 6 mg of 1080 to target foxes and wild dogs respectively and are commercially available through Agsafe 1080-accredited chemical retailers. Capsules for use in Canid Pest Ejectors are registered with the APVMA.
Ejector capsules containing 1080 are sealed and protected ensuring the 1080 remains viable for extended periods in the field. Canid Pest Ejectors are securely pinned to the ground reducing the likelihood of them being moved or cached by foxes, wild dogs or birds.
The device is only activated by a direct pull on the lure head that activates the spring loaded plunger to propel the contents of the capsule directly into the mouth of the wild dog or fox.
What is PAPP?
PAPP (4-aminopropiophenone) is a new active ingredient used in pest animal bait products. Products containing PAPP are approved for the control of foxes and wild dogs. PAPP products are used in a similar way to 1080 baits for fox and wild dog control.
Like 1080, PAPP is a Schedule 7 poison and can only be purchased and used by authorised persons. All PAPP use must comply with the Directions for the Use of 1080 and PAPP Pest Animal Bait Products in Victoria and the product label.
Persons using 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products must make within 48 hours of use, and keep for a period of two years after the date of use, an accurate written record of the use in accordance with the Agricultural Chemicals (Control of Use) Regulations 2017.
Risk assessment for vertebrate pest control using 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products
The bait user is responsible for assessing and managing the risks associated with the use of 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products. Completing a 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait risk assessment will help you to determine if 1080 or PAPP baiting is an appropriate control option and, if so, how many baits or capsules will be needed, what the risks are and how these risks will be managed.
A risk assessment provides the 1080 and PAPP user with a checklist of actions that need to be undertaken prior to, during and after baiting. It covers the identification of hazards (i.e. toxicity to target and non-target species) and the potential for non-target species to be exposed to bait. A risk assessment will enable 1080 and PAPP bait users to identify and minimise the risks associated with the use of 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products.
Completing a 1080 and PAPP pest animal bait risk assessment
A suggested process for completing a 1080 and PAPP risk assessment is provided below:
- Monitor the pest species that you are planning on managing, identifying where they are living, travelling, foraging and/or feeding and estimating their numbers on the property where baits may be laid. Conduct similar monitoring for non-target animals on the property where baits may be laid to determine non-target risks.
- Consider which of the pest animal management techniques available will be most effective for your situation.
- Determine if a 1080 or PAPP pest animal bait program is the most appropriate course of action. If it is, download the appropriate risk assessment for the pest animal species that you are trying to manage:
- Prior to purchasing a 1080 or PAPP bait product, undertake a 1080 and PAPP risk assessment and speak with your neighbours about the pest animal problem and potential management solutions, including baiting. Discuss with them the possibility of undertaking coordinated baiting as this approach gives a greater level of pest animal control over a larger area of land.
- Identify where the most appropriate location(s) for bait placement are on your property.
A range of factors need to be considered when undertaking a baiting program.
The major considerations are accidental contamination of water or feed-stuffs.
Environmental impacts can be avoided through responsible placement of baits, secure storage of bait, use of appropriate bait quantities and effective bait and carcass recovery and disposal.
Always dispose of carcasses and unused and untaken bait products away from natural features like waterways, as specified on the product label. If incinerating, ensure that heat totally destroys the 1080 or PAPP poison and that you adhere to local and state restrictions.
Untaken, unused or damaged,1080 capsules and empty packaging must be disposed of at an approved waste management facility or buried with any 1080 contaminated rinsate and empty packaging to a depth of at least 100 centimetres below the surface. The disposal pit must be specifically marked and set up for this purpose clear of waterways, vegetation and tree roots compliant with State regulations.
1080 capsules for use in Canid Pest Ejectors must not be incinerated.
1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products are not species-specific and can be lethal to some non-target species. Risks to non-target species should be identified in the initial planning phase of the program and practices should be adapted accordingly.
For example, when using 1080 or PAPP pest animal bait products, be aware that:
- domestic dogs are susceptible to primary poisoning from ingesting 1080 or PAPP pest animal bait products and secondary poisoning from ingesting contaminated carcasses. Every attempt must be made to pick up and dispose of carcasses.
- steps need to be taken (for example muzzling or restraining) to ensure that domestic dogs and other domestic animals do not gain access to 1080 or PAPP pest animal bait products or poisoned animals.
- some birds may be susceptible to primary or secondary poisoning. Burying baits, carcass and bait disposal, and dyeing of baits help to reduce these risks.
When using 1080 or PAPP shelf-stable or 1080 perishable bait products specifically for fox or wild dog control, baits must be buried and therefore herbivores have a reduced risk of poisoning as they are unlikely to be attracted to or consume the baits. Lure heads upon canid pest ejectors are also designed to not attract herbivores.
Minimising bait uptake by non-target species
Methods to minimise bait uptake by non-target species include:
- varying bait placement, arrangement and timing to suit feeding behaviour of target species and to avoid non-target species.
- using free-feeding to introduce pest species to bait at a time when non-target species are not actively feeding.
- burying free-feed baits in a mound of fine sand or soil, spread over a diameter of one metre. The sand should be checked for tracks regularly to ensure it is the target species that is taking the baits.
- using spotlight monitoring to determine pest animal population, abundance and distribution.
- selecting bait types that are not usually taken by non-target species.
- using pulse-baiting or staggering the baits to reduce the opportunity for bait caching by an individual animal, particularly predators such as foxes.
- trapping mammals to monitor or identify the presence of non-target species.
- observing tracks, scats and other signs of non-targets in baiting area.
- the use of bait stations to exclude or limit non-target species access to poisoned bait.
Reducing potential harm to non-target species
To reduce the potential harm to non-target wildlife, bait users must comply with free feeding directions on the product label (if applicable).
Bait placement must be such that non-target access is minimised. Baits must not be laid at times when, or in locations where, birds or other non-target species are likely to be harmed by them. Correct bait placement must be ensured, including selecting the minimum effective baiting rate and avoiding baiting during the main breeding seasons of non-target species.
Steps must be taken to ensure that domestic dogs do not gain access to 1080 or PAPP pest animal baits or poisoned carcasses. This can include restraining or muzzling domestic dogs.
A person must not allow domestic stock that they own or control to access any land on which bait has been placed, until the baiting has been completed, and all efforts have been made to collect and destroy untaken bait. This applies to all trail baiting and aerial or ground-broadcast baiting programs.
Incident reporting: non-target animals
If bait users are concerned for any companion animals, livestock or wildlife suspected of being poisoned with 1080 or PAPP they should refer them for immediate veterinary assistance. While there is no antidote to 1080, there is a potential antidote available for PAPP use. However, constraints in availability may limit its effectiveness and users should not rely on an antidote as a method to reduce harm to non-target animals.
All incidents of suspected 1080 or PAPP poisoning of non-target animals, including domestic dogs, must be reported to the Customer Service Centre on 136 186.
Alternative control methods
Risk to non-target species from poisoning can be minimised by using alternative control methods such as those found on our Invasive animal management pages.
Contact your local Landcare or friends group for further assistance and advice.
Contact your local Agriculture Victoria Biosecurity Officer – Invasive Animals on 136 186 for advice on local programs.
Downloadable documents and further information
Below is a list of documents that you may need to download to purchase and/or use 1080 and PAPP bait products.
- Documents Required When Undertaking Fox, Wild Dog and Feral Pig Control in Victoria [MS Word Document - 867.8 KB]
- Documents Required When Undertaking Rabbit Control in Victoria [MS Word Document - 867.1 KB]
- Risk Assessment for Fox, Wild Dog and Feral Pig Control in Victoria [MS Word Document - 755.5 KB]
- Risk Assessment for Rabbit Control in Victoria [MS Word Document - 753.5 KB]
- Neighbour Notification - Template [MS Word Document - 750.5 KB]
- Record Keeping Template - Pest Animal Bait Products [MS Word Document - 203.0 KB]
- Record of Neighbour Notification - Template [MS Word Document - 21.7 KB]
- Agent 1080 Bait Purchase Record [MS Word Document - 22.6 KB]
- Community Baiting Program Notification and Acknowledgement form [MS Word Document - 25.0 KB]
- Example 1080 Warning Sign [MS Word Document - 14.3 KB]
Further information is available from the Customer Service Centre on 136 186.
Find out more about pest animals in Victoria.