Note Number: AG1390
Published: November 2009
This Agriculture Note will help you to assess the skills and requirements needed to run a vegetable growing business. There are a number of considerations to think through before starting to grow vegetables. Growing vegetables can be an attractive option because there is a relatively short time from planting to harvest and for some crops there are relatively simple requirements for capital outlay. However there are a number of factors that should be considered before embarking on vegetable production.
Things to consider before you start
Vegetable production may be considered because;
- There is existing land that you want to use to grow a cash crop,
- The property runs other enterprises and you would like to diversify or move from perennial to annual horticulture,
- You are looking for land to start a vegetable production business.
There are a range of issues that you need to consider but they can be summarised into two key questions;
1. Can I sell it?
2. Can I grow it?
You may be surprised to see that "Can I grow it?" should be your second consideration. Before working out whether or not to grow a crop, you need to have a very firm idea of where the crop is going to be sold. There is no point in growing the finest looking and tasting crop if it sits in the paddock because it can't be sold at the price needed to recover costs.
In addition to these key questions there are other considerations such as water and labour. Water for irrigation will be essential for vegetable production even in areas of high rainfall. Depending on the crop there will be different labour requirements through the life of the crop and at harvest.
Almost every vegetable can be grown successfully in some region of Victoria and nearly all vegetables will be grown in some part of Australia over the 12 months of the year. The market is generally fully supplied apart from periods when there is disruption to supply through climatic conditions. It will be essential to identify market requirements, periods of demand for different crops and then compare this to what crops you can grow.
Another important consideration is the associated land use and zoning of the area that you may have in mind for establishing your business. Peri-urban areas or areas which have a number of small hobby farms or lifestyle residents close by, can potentially have issues and conflicts in relation to land use and commercial farming practices, such as chemical application, operation of machinery at night and other activities. This needs to be factored in when considering the crops, scale and methods of production that may be used.
Each of the following sections will give you more detailed information to consider before you start to grow vegetables.
Selecting the site
Site selection includes issues such as soil type and topography. Steep slopes are not suited to vegetable production and some soils will be unsuitable, while other soil types will have varying degrees of suitability that may require modification of the soil or some adjustment in growing practices. The water holding capacity, pH and the fertility of the soil will also influence the crop management that needs to be undertaken.
The site may or may not come with water. The availability of water for irrigation is essential and vegetable production should not be contemplated without it. If the site is in an irrigation area the water entitlement may be purchased as part of the title or separately and dams will need to be licensed. On-farm dams, bores, pumps and filter systems, mains and other irrigation lines are infrastructure that may be needed. The irrigation method will also need to be considered. If there is an existing irrigation system on site, is it suitable for your chosen crop?
Infrastructure on the site will also influence the outlay costs and so may help in the choosing of a site. Consider things such as coolrooms, glasshouses, washing and packing equipment and sheds, paddock drains, irrigation systems, access (roads and headlands), fencing, and plant and machinery.
What should I grow?
Grow something you can sell
Market demand should be a very significant influence on what you plant and how much. There is no point in getting a perfect crop if you have nowhere to sell it.
It must be remembered that at any time of the year almost all vegetables will be produced in some part Australia because of our widely varying climate. It is important to establish the likely options for where you will sell your product. The next section discusses this in more detail. It is also important to find out what that market needs in terms of presentation, quality and opportunities. This can be done by talking to restaurants, local supermarkets, wholesale agents, processors and other farmers. It is also important to visit the Wholesale Market to see the products present, understand how the market works and presentation of product. Visits can be arranged through the Melbourne Market Trust. Fruit and vegetable prices are available from the Melbourne Wholesale Market each day and average weekly prices are printed in the Weekly Times. It is important to understand that it may have been adverse conditions such as frost, flood or hail that has caused shortage of supply resulting in any high prices, so look for trends over a number of years.
Seasonality can be something that can work to your advantage or disadvantage. It means; what can be grown, when. If something can be grown outside of the main supply time it can bring a price advantage. For example something usually grown in summer that can be produced in winter. Conversely something grown when it is most plentiful will usually bring a lower price although the crop may be at its best in terms of quality and ease of production. Seasonality can best be taken advantage of when exporting or sending product interstate. It will require careful site selection and may mean high capital costs such as glasshouses.
Climatic conditions are a major determinant of what can be grown and at what times of year. There are optimum temperature ranges for all crops. Crops may be heat sensitive while others are cold sensitive and may be affected by frosts. Germination of seed of some crops is temperature dependant. The table below shows the broad categories of what conditions different crops grow under but specific seasonal times will depend on the region and the growing requirements of each crop.
Examples of seasonal production times for some crops:
Warm/cool season crops – some of these can be grown 12 months of the year depending on the regional climate, or may not be suited to winter or summer production in specific regions due to the cold winter or hot summer resulting in poor quality.
Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, pea, onion, leek, celery, parsley, spinach, parsnip, lettuce, asparagus, carrots, snow pea, pea
Warm season crops these may be frost sensitive or not suited to high heat
Beans, sweet corn, squash, cucumber, potato
Warm season crops that have a high heat requirement and are frost sensitive.
Melons, pumpkin, squash, egg plant, capsicum, tomato, cucumber
Labour may well be a determining factor in what you can grow or the amount that you grow.
- Do you want to be able to manage on your own, or are you prepared to hire staff?
- Is there labour available in your local area?
- Do you and your staff have the skill set that you require for your chosen crop?
If production is mechanised then labour requirements may not be so high but infrastructure costs will be very high. The area to be grown will need to be large to utilise the machinery effectively and get a return on capital.
The costs to establish a vegetable crop are usually lower than for permanent horticulture; however you will need to spend money on establishment costs every time you replant.
Some of the capital and equipment costs include: tractors, chilling facilities, cool rooms, crop washing and packing facilities, harvester, planter, spray unit, irrigation lines, sprinklers and pipes, ploughs, bedformers and other equipment.
Establishment costs include: Land preparation, soil tests, pre-plant fertiliser such as lime and general fertiliser, purchase of seed/seedlings, fertiliser for planting and side dressing, water, pesticides, boxes or other packaging.
Experience in horticulture will certainly be valuable in the production of vegetables as many principles are the same e.g. irrigation scheduling, pest monitoring, chemical rotation, but never-the-less it is advisable to plant a small areas of the chosen crops the first time around to learn how to grow them effectively.
If considering small scale production it would be advisable to consider niche opportunities or to concentrate on crops that larger scale producers do not grow. These may include crops that are labour intensive or should be grown sequentially in small areas.
Marketing your product
There are a range of options when it comes to selling your product. Where you sell your product will influence a range of other factors, such as, which quality assurance system is needed, how product is packed, transport costs, quality specifications payment options:
Selling direct to the consumer such as a roadside stall or farmers market has the lowest costs and lowest number of constraints. Another option is selling to restaurants and other food service providers. Conversely the volume of product able to be sold is lower, demand may fluctuate and time needs to be spent on marketing and distribution not just production.
Selling direct to a retailer cuts out the middle-man and may be based on a contracted price so you have some surety of income. However it will also mean having to meet exacting standards, pack the product the way they want it and probably having to comply with an audited QA system. Retailers will also want volume to service all their outlets and continuity of supply. This may lead to penalties if obligations of volume and quantity can not be met, rejected product having to be repacked for other markets, and leaves little option for taking advantage of higher priced markets elsewhere.
There are wholesale markets in all capital cities and they are perhaps the easiest option for selling product. This can be done directly by taking out a market stall in the growers section of the market or by supplying an agent or merchant who will market the product for you. There are different requirements for agents and merchants and these can be obtained from market authorities. There is a Horticulture Code of Conduct which outlines the rules and responsibilities for trading in the wholesale sector (see list of contacts)
The wholesale markets can provide a list of agents or merchants. Some agents specialise in certain crops or regions and it is worth talking to range of them. Be sure you understand what happens in regard to payment policy, unsold product, rejected product, QA requirements, packaging, and freight arrangements.
Selling product to a processor is another option. The quality specifications are different and prices are usually lower but the pros and cons are similar to selling directly to the retailer. However there are limited processors now operating in Australia and prices while more consistent tend to be lower than can be achieved for fresh market. This option will often require extensive research to seek out markets. Don't limit this research to human consumption but also consider animal consumption, pharmaceuticals, and industrial uses.
Growing vegetables organically will require an additional set of skills and knowledge as well as certification from one of the organic authorities. They will require that to be certified as organic a set of requirements will need to be met. Organic produce may attract a price premium; however the costs are also usually greater with a higher demand for labour. To go from conventional farming to certified organic may take a few years. More information can be obtained from the individual organizations.
The Vegetable Research and Development Levy
There is a compulsory National General Vegetable Levy that must be paid at first point of sale. This levy is 0.05% of the sale price or 50c for every $100. The levy is used to fund research and development in the vegetable industry. This levy does not apply to tomatoes, potatoes, onions or mushrooms as they all have their own separate compulsory levy. Asparagus, Garlic and Melons do not pay the compulsory levy but do have voluntary levies raised to manage specific issues. If you are selling direct to the consumer it is up to you to collect and pay the levy. It will be taken out of the sale price if you sell the product on to someone else e.g. supermarket or wholesaler.
Growing the crop
It is wise to get a soil test done at least a couple of months before planting to allow for the addition of elements that may be low. The pH of the soil will influence the availability of nutrients, particularly the trace elements so it is important to be aware of your soils pH. There may be a need to alter it for better nutrient absorption and disease protection. Most vegetable crops prefer a neutral pH but some prefer a slightly more acidic soil.
Some fertiliser may need to be spread and applied pre-planting depending on the results of the soil test. Generally other more specific crop requirements are applied by banding at planting which reduces the amount of fertiliser used in comparison with broadcast applications. Most crops will require some side-dressing after planting throughout their growing season. There is a range of fertilisers available, both chemical and organic. More information can be obtained from fertiliser companies or for general recommendations for specific crops see the appropriate Information Notes.
A special note on Cadmium
Farmers should be aware of the potential dangers of using phosphatic fertilisers with high levels of cadmium. Research has shown that the use of phosphatic fertilisers which contain the heavy metal cadmium as a contaminant can increase cadmium levels in both soil and potatoes. There are legal maximum levels of cadmium allowable for vegetables sold in Australia, however no violations have been recorded for cabbages as a result of survey investigations. Fertilisers containing cadmium in excess of 1 mg/kg are required to state the following warning:
"WARNING––this product contains cadmium. Continued use of this product in agricultural situations may lead to residue levels in plant and animal products in excess of the maximum level specified by the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code and the accumulation of cadmium in soils."
It is in the grower's and consumer's interests to minimise the addition of cadmium to soils and agricultural produce. Growers should consult fertiliser suppliers or manufacturers for advice on the cadmium levels of fertilisers they are considering using. There are a number of low cadmium horticultural fertilisers marketed today. These have lower levels of cadmium than some superphosphate and other fertilisers.
The choice of flat or raised beds depends on soil type, the crop, its production requirements, and the topography of the paddock. Typically heavier soil types will require raised beds to ensure that there is good drainage around the roots of the crop. Crops such as lettuce which are very susceptible to water logging may require raised beds on lighter soils.
Crops may be direct seeded or sown as transplants. In general large seeded vegetables such as sweet corn or pumpkins, or crops with a high density of plants are usually direct seeded. Root crops such as carrots and parsnips, where it is important to keep the tap root undamaged, are also direct seeded. Other crops are usually commercially grown using transplants, usually supplied by a specialist nursery. This is also particularly relevant when using high cost hybrid seed. There are a number of commercial nurseries who supply transplants all over the state. For more information see the Information Note AG0304 on "Seedling Production Using Cell Trays".
Pest and disease
Integrated Pest Management
All vegetable crops will have some potential pest and disease problems. It is essential to monitor crops for pests and diseases as well as the incidence of beneficial insects. Whether or not control of a specific pest or disease is required will depend on the pest or disease level in the crop, the potential for damage and whether the pests can be controlled by existing beneficial organisms.
Crop monitoring is carried out by visual inspecting the crop for the presence of pests and diseases, crop damage, and beneficial insects. Monitoring can also be done by setting up traps for specific pests and these will need to be inspected regularly. Examples of these traps include sticky yellow traps for insects such as aphids and thrips or pheromone (hormones that attract male insects) traps for pests such as diamond back moth. Traps provide an indication over time of the relative pest levels and will allow the grower to identify when pest or disease pressure is increasing. This will identify when growers will need to monitor crops more frequently.
It is important to consider that if only low levels of pests or diseases are present it may not be necessary to apply any control practices, since existing pests may be controlled by beneficials, or that the pest or disease may not cause economic damage.
If control is warranted then it is important to consider what beneficials are present, are they controlling the other pests and are there targeted soft chemicals (that protect the beneficial insects) available. For some pests such as aphids or caterpillars there are targeted pesticides that will not kill a number of the beneficials but will control the targeted pest, e.g. specific aphicides. It is important to remember that if a broad spectrum chemical is used it will not only kill the targeted pest but also a range of insects that control pests.
Pest control that considers the whole biological system is called "Integrated Pest Management" or IPM. An IPM system uses a range of approaches to control pests and diseases including the use of monitoring, biological controls, cultivation, management practices, trap cropping and chemical application. Rather than one specific technique it is a range of activities which work together. A good IPM program will reduce dependence on chemical control. It is important to remember that it is not only insecticides that can disrupt the system, some fungicides will also kill beneficial insects.
Pest and disease control can also be achieved by using resistant varieties as well as a range of cultural and management methods. For some pests and diseases chemical control may not be an effective option.
Detailed information on IPM is available for specific crops. See the contact section at the end of this publication for where to find more information or consult the Agriculture Notes for a specific crop.
The spray program needed for vegetable production will be dependant on a range of factors such pest levels, weather -temperature, rainfall, and quality requirements for the crop i.e. what is the tolerance for damage to the marketable crop.
Some organisms have been shown to be resistant to certain chemicals or chemical groups. It is important to minimise the development of resistance. There are a number of resistance management strategies that have been developed. Chemical labels also give information on how to minimise resistance. This may include rotating chemical groups or limiting the number of sprays per crop.
There are a range of legal requirements that you need to comply with when using chemicals. These include having the appropriate chemical user certification, adhering to withholding periods (length of time after spraying that a crop can be harvested) and strict rules on record keeping.
It is also advisable that you complete a Farm Chemical User Course which is regularly run by training institutions such as TAFEs. This is also a precursor to getting an Agricultural Chemical Users Permit, which is essential for the use of some chemicals.
Water supply and delivery
The availability of water for irrigation is essential for vegetable production and its supply and quality will determine the area and crops that can be grown. Supply must be reliable and typical water sources include rivers or streams, channels, ground water, and farm dams. For vegetable crops generally around 6 megalitres/ha is required from planting to harvest.
Water delivery methods vary depending on where the farm is situated. Farms in controlled irrigation areas will have to pay water delivery and system maintenance fees. Water is delivered by channel or pipe. The water may not be available all year as channels may be filled only during the irrigation season of the main crops grown in the area. Water may need to be ordered or restricted to certain volume limits depending on capacity. Bores and direct pumping from rivers will also be subject to rules but there is usually more flexibility about water availability. However be aware that some streams have environmental flow requirements and once these thresholds are reached irrigation may banned until the flows increase.
An increasingly important source of water in some production areas is the use of recycled water. This is different to grey water because it has been treated to bring it back up to potable standards so it is safe to use for vegetable production. Different classes of water have different rules attached as to what they can be used for. Recycled water may have higher levels of salts and this will require careful management depending on the crop.
Water quality should be tested no matter what the source if you are considering buying a property to grow vegetables and you are unsure of the quality of the water available. Tolerance of crops to salt levels varies considerably for example beans are much less salt tolerant than broccoli.
Application methods include drip irrigation, overhead fixed and moveable sprinklers, travelling irrigators like centre pivots and flood irrigation. Drip irrigation is the most water efficient application method but all systems have their pros and cons. Some production situations, crops or soil types may not be suited to specific irrigation methods. It is most important no matter what the method used, that an even distribution pattern of water is applied to ensure even and controlled crop growth. The method used will depend on the crop to be grown, how much water is available and the capital that can be invested. An irrigation designer is the best person to help determine what options you have.
Scheduling water application to crop needs is critical to managing irrigation. Over or under irrigation of crops can lead to quality problems, poor yields and crop loss. Monitoring the soil moisture levels is the best way to determine how much water a crop needs.
There are a number of methods that can be used to schedule irrigation, from the simple tensiometers (these require frequent monitoring and maintenance), to more expensive logging equipment such as environscan, aquaflex and neutron probes. Again check with your irrigation specialist for alternative methods. Another option is to use evapotranspiration figures. This is an estimate of evaporation and water use by crops and will indicate the amount of water used over a period of time. Evapotranspiration figures are available from some local weather stations and may be published in local newspapers or available electronically. See the Information Notes for some information on irrigation scheduling.
Monitoring of the irrigation system is important so that leaks and blockages can be picked up. The uniformity of the water application should also be checked every few seasons to detect worn nozzles. Irrigation management courses will teach you all the basics of irrigation application and system maintenance. There are run periodically by various training providers.
Climate and climatic variability is a critical factor in vegetable production and is largely beyond your control, unless you plan to establish protected cropping such as glasshouse or shade-house production. Climate will determine what crops can be grown and at what time of the year. Some crops will be frost sensitive; others will have a heat requirement or a minimum soil temperature for germination of seed.
Varieties of specific vegetable crops such as cauliflowers or lettuce are produced for particular seasonal conditions and times. For some vegetable varieties this timing can be very specific and if they are grown outside those conditions due to poor timing or unseasonal weather, the crop may fail due to prematurely running to seed or poor head formation.
It is also important to remember that weather conditions are variable and that there are also extreme events which can affect the growing conditions and crop quality.
Weather will also have an impact on disease and insect levels. Leaf wetness increases the likelihood of some fungal diseases and this is not only due to irrigation and rain but also humidity and dew. Other conditions which can influence pest and disease incidence include temperature and wind.
Some of the adverse conditions that can cause problems include damage caused by wind or wind blown sand, as well as frost, sunburn and hail. Whilst you can't stop adverse weather there are things that can help reduce its impact, such as choosing where to plant vulnerable crops e.g. Avoiding frost hollows in frost prone months, planting wind breaks and using irrigation to reduce heat, wind or frost damage.
Some crops are more susceptible to wind, such as beans, or the spear development of asparagus can be affected. Consider the use of windbreaks and the type of windbreak for such crops.
It is also increasingly important to take into account the impact of potential climate change. For vegetable production the major impact is in relation to increased climate variability which may mean that there is an increased risk of crops running to seed or failing to set normal heads due to unseasonal conditions or being damaged by severe weather events. This increase in seasonal variability should be taken into account when planning planting schedules and choosing varieties. If you are establishing a new property you may want to consider the long term outlook for the area. It is likely that most parts of Victoria will become hotter and drier in the future.
The labour requirement varies significantly for different crops depending on picking frequency, pruning and training requirements. Some crops will need to be picked every couple of days or daily, others will have pruning or training requirements that may be very labour intensive. Other crops may need a once only harvest and relatively little maintenance throughout the growing period of the crop.
In choosing what crop to grow the level and frequency of labour needed to manage the crop should be taken into account. For labour intensive crops, production on a larger scale will require significantly more labour and so may not give the economies of scale that might have been expected.
It is also critical to remember that farms are inherently dangerous workplaces and farmers and farm workers are more likely to be injured or die at work than any other Victorians. There are Occupational Health and Safety requirements that must be met. These are available from WorkSafe Victoria (see contact list).
Harvest labour can be a significant consideration when deciding to grow vegetables. You may need a consistent supply of labour or many hands all at once or something in between.
The crop you choose will dictate the type of labour you need. Crops generally fall into one of four categories
Harvested by machinery - These do not have a high demand for labour but the capital outlay for the machinery may be significant. Examples are potatoes, corn, carrots and processing tomatoes.
Harvested by hand once - Labour demands for these crops are generally lower. Depending on the size of the operation these may be managed by a family unit. Considerations will depend on the perishability of the crop and how quickly it needs to be harvested after it matures. An example of this are pumpkins.
Harvested by hand with multiple picks and/or multiple cropping - Labour demand for these crops will vary depending on the size of the area planted and the number of picks required. Broccoli for example will usually have 2-3 picks and crops are also planted sequentially every one or two weeks to provide continuity of supply throughout the season.
Harvested by hand continuously - Crops may need pruning or training as well as harvesting. These crops may produce over a whole season or for extended periods with sequential plantings. Examples of these crops include fresh tomatoes, squash, eggplant, asparagus and snow peas.
Regular work makes it easier to keep good employees but can cause problems if there is limited labour.
Needing labour all at once or semi regularly can mean spending more time on training of new staff each time you need workers.
Yields and post-harvest considerations
Yields may vary from season to season and between paddocks. It is difficult to predict. Indications of average yields for some vegetable crops are shown below.
Zucchini and squashes
Onion brown and white
Capsicum and chillies
Do not be tempted to plant more than you can manage and that includes harvesting, post harvest handling, packing and storage.
Cooling and other handling requirements
Some of the things to consider after harvest include does your crop require refrigeration, ice, or post-harvest treatments such as washing, trimming or fungicides? Just placing product in the cool room is usually not enough to get the harvested crop down to a suitable temperature before transport. The outer product may be cool but product in the middle of the box or pallet may have only been reduced a couple of degrees. Additional cooling infrastructure may be needed such as forced air cooling or hydro-cooling. The whole post harvest cooling chain is only as strong as the weakest link and poor post harvest handling will result in a rapid loss in quality and significant product loss.
Crops will need to be packed and graded according to size and/or colour depending on the type of crop. This means that there may be a requirement for packing and grading lines. These issues will also affect the amount of labour needed.
Some products before being sent to market will need to be washed for phytosanitary requirements or for appearance, for example, to remove soil on potatoes. Water quality is also a factor and there may need to be treatment of the water, e.g. filtering or chlorination for it to be suitable as wash water.
The crop will need to be stored prior to sale or shipment and most vegetable crops will require storage in a coolroom. Even crops that do not need cold storage may need some treatment, for example onions and pumpkins need to be cured if they are to store well.
The first attempts should be treated as a learning experience. It is suggested that small areas of some different crops should be grown initially to gain some understanding of the issues and to see, which are most suitable and which have the strongest markets.
If you have no plant production experience, you should consider working for someone else or share farming with someone more experienced until you learn the ropes. This will also help you to see if vegetable production is something that suits your temperament. There are courses and apprenticeships available to assist you learn about vegetable production in a more formal way.
Converting from trees or vines to vegetables
If you are considering converting to vegetable production from other forms of horticulture there are a few things to be aware of.
- Full time vegetable farms generally involve more consistent labour throughout the year than tree or vine crops because there is no winter dormancy.
- Irrigation systems for trees and vines will not necessarily be suitable for vegetable production e.g. Emitter spacings may be too far apart.
- Crop prices are more volatile than perennial crops because there can be huge variation in the amount of a particular crop planted each year and seasonal conditions in production areas can have a big effect on supply
- There is very a strong sense of competition among vegetable farmers and peer support may be difficult to get.
- Ground that has recently grown another horticulture crop may struggle to support vegetable production before a suitable fallow period.
- Generally vegetables grown between rows of perennial crops will mean that both crops suffer particularly if on the one irrigation system as they usually have different water requirements and spray programs.
- Vegetable growers continually crop throughout a season to take into account the seasonal variation of peaks and troughs in supply. Do not expect that the production of any one crop will necessarily return a profit. That will depend upon supply and demand at harvest as well as the crop and quality you produce.
Contacts and services available
The internet will provide you with a lot of helpful websites from Australia and overseas. This website has a range of general information on farming and is a good place to start for information on growing vegetables. We publish a comprehensive set of Information Notes and Fact sheets (Matter-of-Facts) that can give you more information about specific crops and topics.
If you do not have access to the internet, you can contact us for assistance.
Market agents and supermarket buyers can let you know about product specifications, demand and packaging requirements.
The wholesale markets can offer advice and assistance to new growers. This includes lists of registered market agents, and selling price.
The representative organisation for vegetable growers in Victoria is the Vegetable Growers Association (VGA). It can provide a range of assistance to growers including advice, access to research products and opportunities for networking and meeting other growers.
The Victorian Farmers Federation also has a representative role for vegetable growers and can provide advice.
There are local associations in some areas or for some specific crops such as Mushrooms, garlic, asparagus and processing tomatoes as well as a range of organisations representing the various aspects of potato growing.
Try to talk to as many people as possible from different areas and along the value chain. Farmers in the local area will prove invaluable if you can get them to open up to you. Farmers who may have recently retired may be a good option as they are likely to have a wealth of experience and are not going to be competing with you for market share.
Victorian Vegetable Growers Association Ph: 03 9687 4707
AUSVEG Ph: 03 9544 8098
Melbourne Market Authority Ph: 03 9258 6100
Australian Asparagus Council Ph: 03 9884 8206
Australian Mushroom Growers Association Ph: 02 4577 6877
Australian Garlic Industry Association Ph: 03 9495 0938 (Helen Tripp)
Australian Melon Association Ph: 07 4157 6238
Australian Onion Industry Association Ph: 08 8725 8862
Processing Tomato Research Council Inc Ph: 03 5825 4633
Horticulture Australia Ph: 02 8295 2300
Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority Ph: 02 6210 4700
Horticulture Code of Conduct from ACCC (Infocentre) Ph: 1300 302 502
WorkSafe Victoria Ph: 1800 136 089
This Agnote was developed by Sally-Ann Henderson and Rob Dimsey, Farm Services Victoria in November 2009.
Published and Authorised by:
Department of Environment and Primary Industries
1 Spring Street
This publication is copyright. No part may be reproduced by any process except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright Act 1968.
The advice provided in this publication is intended as a source of information only. Always read the label before using any of the products mentioned. The State of Victoria and its employees do not guarantee that the publication is without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes and therefore disclaims all liability for any error, loss or other consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication