|Common name:||Pampas lily-of-the-valley|
|Scientific name:||Salpichroa origanifolia (Lam.) Thell.|
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Catchment management authority boundaries
Regionally prohibited in the East Gippsland Catchment
Regionally controlled in the North East, Port Phillip and Western Port Catchments
Restricted in the Mallee, North Central, Glenelg Hopkins, Goulburn Broken, Wimmera, Corangamite and West Gippsland Catchments
Herbaceous plant - Forb (flowering herbaceous plant - not a grass)
Pampas lily-of-the-valley is a perennial herb, aerial growth dies in autumn. New growth develops in late winter and spring.
Pampas lily-of-the-valley has numerous stems arising from a perennial rootstock. They are erect at first then become prostrate and trailing to a length of 3 m long. Stems are often densely hairy and zig-zagged. Older stems four-angled in cross-section.
Pampas lily-of-the-valley produces leaves singly or in pairs at the nodes and each pair is unequal in size. They are ovate, 5-40 mm long, have short hairs and leaf stalks are about the same length as or shorter than the leaf blades.
Flowers of pampas lily-of-the-valley are white or cream. They are about 6-8 mm long, bell-shaped, nodding with stalks about the same length as the flower formed singly or in pairs at the leaf axils.
Pampas lily-of-the-valley fruit is a yellow berry when ripe, 1-2 cm long, ovoid, smooth and contains several seeds.
Growth and lifecycle
Method of reproduction and disperal
Pampas lily-of-the-valley reproduces from roots and by seed.
Roots are dispersed via cultivation equipment, road graders and garden refuse while seeds are spread via contaminated equipment, clothing, mud, animals and birds that eat the fruit.
Rate of growth and spread
Pampas lily-of-the-valley has a rapid growth rate from around two years after germination.
Seedbank propagule persistence
Pampas lily-of-the-valley produces 100 berries per plant with 20 seeds contained in each berry resulting in at least 2,000 seeds per plant.
Pampas lily-of-the-valley prefers temperate regions mainly on alkaline sandy soils in warm and often semi-arid situations. It is a weed of urban areas where it grows on home sites and neglected areas, trailing over fences and low bushes.
It is drought tolerant and invades dry coastal vegetation, heathland, heathy woodland, lowland grassland, grassy woodland, dry sclerophyll forest, damp sclerophyll forest and riparian vegetation.
In Victoria, the plant is well established in the sandy coastal soils of Melbourne suburbs on the eastern shores of Port Phillip Bay. It is also found in several towns, particularly to the west of Melbourne.
The icons on the calendar below represent the times of year for flowering, seeding, germination, the dormancy period of Pampas lily-of-the-valley and also the optimum time for treatment.
Impact on ecosystems and waterways
Once established, pampas lily-of-the-valley smothers all other vegetation, killing large shrubs and fruit trees, and making vegetable and flower culture difficult. Presence of the weed can seriously impact all strata, decreasing biodiversity.
Agricultural and economic impacts
Pampas lily-of-the-valley is not a weed of agriculture or cropping. There is no evidence of stock eating the plant.
Social value and health impacts
While limited in distribution, infestations of the pampas lily-of-the-valley occurs in medium to large populations and would be noticeable to visitors, although it is unlikely to inhibit recreational activities.It is thought to be poisonous, although no cases have been reported in Australia to date.
Prescribed measures for the control of noxious weeds
- Application of a registered herbicide
- Physical removal
Other management techniques
Changes in land use practices and spread prevention may also support Pampas lily-of-the-valley management after implementing the prescribed measures above.
Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. and Robinson, K.E. 1992, Environmental weed invasions in Victoria: Conservation and management implications, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and Ecological Horticulture, Victoria.
Parsons WT & Cuthbertson EG 1992, Noxious Weeds of Australia, Inkata Press, Melbourne and Sydney.
Parsons, W.T. and Cuthbertson, E.G. 2001, Noxious weeds of Australia, 2nd edn, Inkata Press, Melbourne & Sydney.
Department of Primary Industries, Pampas-Lily-of-the-Valley Regionally Prohibited Weed Fact Sheet, February 2010