1080 and PAPP animal bait

1080 (sodium fluoroacetate) and PAPP (4-aminopropiophenone) are chemicals registered and approved by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) for the control of a variety of pest animals in Victoria. Products containing 1080 are commonly used for the control of rabbits, wild dogs, foxes and feral pigs. PAPP products are used to control wild dogs and foxes.

1080 and PAPP are classified as Schedule 7 Poisons (Dangerous Poisons) and are restricted chemical products under Commonwealth legislation. The manufacture, sale and use of products containing 1080 and PAPP is regulated. All 1080 and PAPP use must comply with the Directions for the Use of 1080 and Papp Pest Animal Bait Products in Victoria and the product label.

Types of bait products

Baits are available as either:

  • Shelf-stable baits, which include dried manufactured meat baits and dry oat baits.
  • Perishable (short-life or fresh) baits, which are a fresh bait product that must be laid within 3 days of the date of manufacture.

The only 1080, or PAPP, baits legally available for users in Victoria are:

  • APVMA products registered for use in Victoria
  • Perishable baits made using 1080 Aqueous Solution and supplied in accordance with an APVMA permit.

Shelf-stable 1080 and PAPP baits

Shelf-stable pest animal bait products have a long shelf life and are commercially manufactured and sold through Agsafe 1080 and PAPP accredited chemical retailers.

See a list of Agsafe 1080 and PAPP accredited stores.

Shelf-stable pest animal bait products are formulated to target a specific pest animal and are registered with the APVMA.

Shelf-stable pest animal bait products are:

  • dried meat-based baits that target foxes or wild dogs
  • dry oat baits for rabbits
  • commercially manufactured feral pig bait.

The maximum period of time between bait purchase, the date of manufacture and the destruction or disposal of baits that are unused or not taken, is 2 months from date of purchase.

Perishable baits

Perishable or 'fresh' 1080 pest animal bait products have a short shelf life. They are manufactured by licensed 1080 organisations, and can be supplied by licensed manufacturers and Agsafe accredited chemical retailers .

Perishable 1080 pest animal bait products can only be made from:

  • boneless red meat to target wild dogs
  • liver for wild dogs and foxes
  • carrots for rabbits

Perishable 1080 pest animal bait products are manufactured by injecting or applying 1080 aqueous solution to carrot, liver or boneless red meat, and supplied under permit from the APVMA. These baits have a short shelf life and must be laid within 3 days of the date of manufacture.

Capsules for use in canid pest ejectors

Capsules for use in canid pest ejectors contain a dose specific to the intended target (foxes or wild dogs) and are commercially available through Agsafe 1080 and PAPP accredited chemical retailers. Capsules for use in canid pest ejectors are registered with the APVMA.

Ejector capsules containing 1080 or PAPP are sealed and protected ensuring the contents remains viable for extended periods in the field.

The device is only activated by a direct pull on the lure head that activates the spring loaded plunger to propel the contents of the capsule directly into the mouth of the wild dog or fox.

Using 1080 and PAPP animal bait

To use 1080 or PAPP, a person must:

Risk management

A range of factors need to be considered when undertaking a baiting program.

Environmental factors

The major considerations are accidental contamination of water and feed-stuffs.

Environmental impacts can be avoided through:

  • responsible placement of baits
  • secure storage of bait
  • use of appropriate bait quantities
  • effective bait and carcass recovery and disposal

Always dispose of carcasses and unused and not taken bait products away from natural features like waterways, as specified on the product label. If incinerating, ensure the heat completely destroys the 1080 or PAPP poison and that you adhere to local and state restrictions.

Untaken, unused or damaged 1080 or PAPP capsules and empty packaging must be disposed of at an approved waste management facility or buried with any 1080 contaminated rinsate and empty packaging to a depth of at least 100 centimetres below the surface.

The disposal pit must be specifically marked and set up for this purpose, clear of waterways, vegetation and tree roots and compliant with State regulations.

1080 or PAPP capsules for use in canid pest ejectors must not be incinerated. For further direction on acceptable disposal, 1080 and PAPP users should contact the Environment Protection Authority Victoria.

Non-target species

1080 and PAPP pest animal bait products are not species-specific and can be lethal to some non-target species. Risks to non-target species should be identified in the initial planning phase of the program and practices should be adapted accordingly.

When using 1080 or PAPP pest animal bait products, be aware that:

  • domestic dogs are susceptible to primary poisoning from ingesting 1080 or PAPP pest animal bait products and secondary poisoning from ingesting contaminated carcasses
  • steps need to be taken (for example muzzling or restraining) to ensure that domestic dogs and other domestic animals do not gain access to 1080 or PAPP pest animal bait products or poisoned animals
  • some birds may be susceptible to primary or secondary poisoning — burying baits, carcass and bait disposal, and dyeing of baits help to reduce these risks

When using 1080 or PAPP shelf-stable or 1080 perishable bait products specifically for fox or wild dog control, baits must be buried and therefore herbivores have a reduced risk of poisoning as they are unlikely to be attracted to or consume the baits.

Lure heads on canid pest ejectors are designed to not attract herbivores.

Reducing potential harm to non-target animals

To reduce potential harm to non-target animals, including wildlife, bait users must:

  • Select bait types that are not usually taken by non-target species
  • 1080 oat and carrot users must comply with free feeding directions on the product label (if applicable)
  • Bait placement or bait placement design must be such that non-target access is minimised
  • 1080 or PAPP baits must be laid at times when, or in locations where, birds or other non-target wildlife are likely to be harmed by them
  • Potential risks must be reduced by correct 1080 and PAPP bait placement, selection of the minimum effective baiting rate and avoidance of baiting during the non-target species main breeding seasons.
  • Steps must be taken to ensure that domestic dogs do not gain access to 1080 or PAPP pest animal baits or poisoned carcasses. This can include restraining or muzzling domestic dogs.
  • A person must not allow domestic stock that they own or control to access any land on which bait has been placed, until the baiting has been completed, and all efforts have been made to collect and destroy untaken bait. This applies to all trail baiting and aerial or ground-broadcast baiting programs.

Methods to minimise bait uptake by non-target species include:

  • varying bait placement, arrangement and timing to suit feeding behaviour of target species and to avoid non-target species
  • using free-feeding to introduce pest species to bait at a time when non-target species are not actively feeding
  • burying free-feed baits in a mound of fine sand or soil, spread over a diameter of 1 metre — the sand should be checked for tracks regularly to ensure it is the target species that is taking the baits
  • using spotlight monitoring to determine pest animal population, abundance and distribution
  • using pulse-baiting or staggering the baits to reduce the opportunity for bait caching by an individual animal, particularly predators such as foxes
  • trapping mammals to monitor or identify the presence of non-target species
  • observing tracks, scats and other signs of non-targets in baiting area
  • the use of bait stations to exclude or limit non-target species access to poisoned bait

Incident reporting non-target animals

If bait users are concerned for any companion animals, livestock or wildlife suspected of being poisoned with 1080 or PAPP they should refer them for immediate veterinary assistance. While there is no antidote to 1080, there is a potential antidote available for PAPP use.

However, constraints in availability may limit its effectiveness and users should not rely on an antidote as a method to reduce harm to non-target animals.

All incidents of suspected 1080 or PAPP poisoning of non-target animals, including domestic dogs, must be reported to the Customer Contact Centre on 136 186.

Alternative control methods

Risk to non-target species from poisoning can be minimised by using alternative control methods such as those found on invasive animal management.

Contact your local Landcare or friends group for further assistance and advice.

Contact your local Agriculture Victoria Biosecurity Officer on 136 186 for advice on local programs.

Page last updated: 29 Feb 2024