Viticulture research

Effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite as a disinfestation treatment for footwear and small hand-held tools

First instar nymphs are the most dispersive stage and can be transferred between properties on footwear and hand-held tools.

This research reviewed the effectiveness of bleach (sodium hypoclorite [NaOCl]) in disinfesting footwear and handheld tools. The findings showed that immersing items in 2% bleach for 30 seconds followed by a thorough rinse in water was ineffective across genetically diverse phylloxera strains.

The revised method for disinfestation of footwear and tools is to thoroughly clean the items to remove soil and plant debris, then immerse them in a freshly made solution of 2% bleach for 60 seconds without a water rinse afterwards.

Read the full paper:

Effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite as a disinfestation treatment against genetically diverse strains of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae)

Dry heat treatment for machinery and equipment

Dry heat treatment is mandatory before movement of harvesters from a Phylloxera Infested Zone (PIZ). The dry heat treatment is also one of the preferred options for disinfesting other vineyard machinery, equipment and packages.

Machinery and equipment must be thoroughly cleaned to remove soil and organic matter before the dry heat treatment. As a result of this research, the current disinfestation procedure requires the use of dry heat in a room at a minimum of 40°C for 180 minutes or 45°C for 90 minutes.

Read the full paper:

Dry heat as a disinfestation treatment against genetically diverse strains of grape phylloxera

Hot water immersion as a disinfestation treatment for grapevine root cuttings and rootlings

Movement of grapevine cuttings and rootlings is regulated in Australia. To enter Victoria from an interstate Phylloxera Risk Zone (PRZ), or to enter a Victorian Phylloxera Exclusion Zone from a Victorian PRZ, cuttings or rootlings must be treated and comply with certification requirements.

This research validated the effectiveness of immersing cuttings and rootlings in water heated to 54°C for 5 minutes, or at 50°C for 30 minutes.

Read the full paper:

Hot water immersion as a disinfestation treatment for grapevine root cuttings against genetically diverse grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch

Biocontrol options for grape phylloxera in Australia

An extensive review on phylloxera biocontrol showed scope for the potential release of natural enemies from the pest’s native range, commercially reared predatory insects, and the application of insect-killing microorganisms such as nematodes and fungi. Conservation biocontrol practices could enhance native predators in vineyards.

Read the full technical report:

Biocontrol options for grape phylloxera in Australia.

Developing and validating LAMP as a new in-field tool for detection and identification

AVR has developed a LAMP assay (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) which gives rapid (in less than an hour) and accurate molecular identification of a suspect phylloxera sample containing the life stages egg, intermediates and adults. A LAMP machine about the size of a laptop can be carried to vineyards for in-field phylloxera diagnosis.

Read the full paper:

LAMP – A new tool for rapid in-field detection of phylloxera.

Page last updated: 26 Sep 2022